Panel for predisposition to inflammation

The test is based on the analysis of genetic polymorphisms associated with an increased risk of disease related to inflammatory component. The complete test is based on the analysis of five genetic polymorphisms, located on 4 genes. The IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine, able to perform many functions; it has generally a pro-inflammatory action. The gene IL-6 contains several poly- morphisms including one in position -174 in the promoter that consists in the substitution of a guanine with a cytosine. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory molecule that inhibits the release of pro- inflammatory cytokines during the development of inflammatory responses. It is secreted by T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages. This molecule regulates inflammatory responses and has immunosuppressive activity. IL-10, having an immunosuppressive action, plays an important role in the pathogenesis and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Many studies have investigated this polymorphism in the promoter region of the gene of IL-10 in position -1082 G> A .The pres- ence of allele A is associated to a lower production of the molecule of IL-10. It was found that the presence of the AA genotype increases the risk of developing myocardial infarction and car- diovascular disease compared to the GG genotype (GG. Murakozy 2001 J Mol Med79, 665). Re- cently, the AA haplotype has been associated with chronic periodontitis (Loo et al 2012 J Trans- lational Medicine (10): 58). Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a pluripotent cytokine that may carry out and adjust many immune functions and is mainly involved in the activation of inflammatory respons- es. The IL-1a, in particular, is also released into the bloodstream by exercising actions spread in the body. Indeed, it is one of the factors capable of inducing fever, sleep, anorexia, and hypoten- sion. IL-1β is important in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction as it stimulates macrophages and endothelial cells to release tissue factor (TF), a potent inducer of thrombi.
The presence of mutated alleles is also correlated to periodontic diseases. Polymorphism on the promoter of IL-1b in position -511 consists in the replacement of an A (adenine) with a G (guanine). The presence of the allele in combination with other polymorphisms in other genes increases the risk of developing thromboembolic disease. On the other hand, polymorphism in subjects with IL-1β protective reduces blood clotting, decreasing the likelihood of being exposed to the risk of heart attack or stroke (Mattila (2002) J Med Genet 39, 400; Rizzi C, Carcinogene- sis. 2011 Dec, 32 (12): 1849-54.