Malattie sessualmente trasmissibili

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD), over 300 millions cases every year, represent a global health issue. More open habits, easier international mobility, migration of entire populations look- ing for better social and economic life conditions, contribute strongly to the increasing of these diseases. The emerging of new infectious agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis, HSV-3, HPV, HIV and others expanded the venereal pathologies that, only few years ago, seemed to be in a containment phase. From few common agents in the 80’s, the etiological causes of STD present nowadays are over 30. This situation determined insurgency of new pathological conditions, com- plications and unusual sequelae as sterility, ectopic pregnancies, perinatal death and risk of in- volvement of other organs.
Italian data concerning the real situation of the phenomenon are not easily traceable or are not uniformly released in the national territory. Anyway, looking to the data and on basis of authorita- tive interventions of the Italian leading scholars, it can be asserted that both the classical STD, particularly syphilis and gonococcus, and the “second generation” STD are, in the beginning of the third millennium, in constant and alarming growth showing an increasing of 30% of syphilis in centers for diagnosis and treatment in the Italian major cities. All these factors confirm the re- surgence of STD phenomenon represents an important side of the modern medicine requiring di- agnostic, therapeutical and preventive intervention more than ever. It is clear, facing a such im- portant problem, the necessity of new diagnostic methods like molecular biology that offers, in the daily practice, the chance of fast and reliable diagnosis without thereby dismissing the tradi- tional techniques, often still solid. The treatment of many STD can be problematic. These diseas- es in fact show therapeutical problems related to pharmaco-resistance, as for HIV, developing re- sistance to antiretroviral drugs and their combinations. Other factors limiting the possibility of treatment, especially in developing countries, are the therapy cost (serious problem for AIDS treatment), the sub-clinic nature of the infections and reluctance of looking and/or following pre- vention and care programs.